1) Project: «Brain neuroimaging markers associated with cognitive rehabilitation and physical exercise in schizophrenia» / Funding source: Health Research Projects: Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness / Reference: PI16/01022
This is a longitudinal study that aims to analyse the effectiveness of two types of interventions in people with schizophrenia: cognitive rehabilitation with the Rehacop Programme and a physical exercise intervention. This study will analyse changes at the clinical, cognitive, functional, physical and brain levels, both structural and functional, comparing the two experimental groups (cognitive rehabilitation and physical exercise) with an active control group that will receive the usual treatment. A second objective consists in detecting brain neuroimaging biomarkers that are associated with an improvement after the two interventions.
With regard to this Project, a study has been published that analyses the role of executive functions and the theory of mind in the performance of creativity in people with schizophrenia (Sampedro, A., Peña, J., Ibarretxe-bilbao, N., Sánchez, P., Iriarte-yoller, N., Ledesma-gonzález, S., Tous-Espelosin, M., Ojeda, N. (2019). Mediating role of cognition and social cognition on creativity among patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: Revisiting the Shared Vulnerability Model. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 1–7).
2) Project: "Combined treatment of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease and psychoeducation in their family carers: short- and long-term effectiveness" / Funding source: BBK obra social
The aim of this project is to study the effectiveness of the Rehacop programme in improving the cognition and quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease and their family carers. This is a randomized controlled trial in which a cognitive rehabilitation programme is applied with the Rehacop programme in patients with Parkinson's disease and, in parallel, a psychoeducational programme in their family carers with 3 evaluation moments (basal, post-treatment and longitudinal follow-up) to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Likewise, participants’ cognitive, functional and mood performance at the beginning of the study was evaluated at the end of the intervention. A significant improvement is expected in the cognitive, functional and mood performance of participants in the interventions.
3) Project: "Structural and functional brain changes associated with cognitive rehabilitation in neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's)" / Funding source: Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness / Reference: PSI2012-32441
This project evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation programme (Rehacop) to improve the cognition, clinical symptoms and functional disability of patients with Parkinson's disease. The associated brain changes are evaluated and a longitudinal follow-up at 18 months is conducted. Forty-four patients with Parkinson's disease were assessed using a neuropsychological battery and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, at pre-treatment, post-treatment and long-term follow-up.
The results show that the Rehacop group significantly improved in various cognitive functions, decreased functional disability, and increased brain connectivity and activity. Longitudinal follow up shows that cognitive improvement, reduction in functional disability and functional level brain changes are maintained after 18 months, this being the first study to show that, despite being a neurodegenerative disease, changes are maintained after 18 months. These results have been collected in different scientific contributions resulting from the project. These include numerous scientific articles published in international journals (see references) and two doctoral theses: “Cerebral correlates of mild cognitive impairment and brain changes related to cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease” (Dra. María Díez-Cirarda, international mention) and "Structural and functional brain changes of cognitive and other non-motor dysfunctions in idiopathic and genetic Parkinson’s disease” (Dr. Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, international and transfer mention).
In addition, several presentations were made at national and international congresses, particularly one of the two most important works of the Pan-American Congress of Movement Disorders, best oral communication and best poster award.
- Peña, J., Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., García-Gorostiaga, I., Gomez-Beldarrain, M. A., Díez-Cirarda, M., & Ojeda, N. (2014). Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease: randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 83(23), 2167-2174.
- Díez-Cirarda, M., Ojeda, N., Peña, J., Cabrera-Zubizarreta, A., Lucas-Jiménez, O., Gómez-Esteban, J. C., … & Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N. (2017). Increased brain connectivity and activation after cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. Brain imaging and behavior, 11(6), 1640-1651.
- Díez‐Cirarda, M., Ojeda, N., Peña, J., Cabrera‐Zubizarreta, A., Lucas‐Jiménez, O., Gómez‐Esteban, J. C., … & Ibarretxe‐Bilbao, N. (2018). Long‐term effects of cognitive rehabilitation on brain, functional outcome and cognition in Parkinson’s disease. European journal of neurology, 25(1), 5-12.
- Chiaravalloti, N. D., Ibarretxe‐Bilbao, N., DeLuca, J., Rusu, O., Pena, J., García‐Gorostiaga, I., & Ojeda, N. (2014). The source of the memory impairment in Parkinson’s disease: acquisition versus retrieval. Movement Disorders, 29(6), 765-771.
- Diez-Cirarda, M., Ojeda, N., Pena, J., Cabrera-Zubizarreta, A., Gómez-Beldarrain, M. Á., Gómez-Esteban, J. C., & Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N. (2015). Neuroanatomical correlates of theory of mind deficit in Parkinson’s disease: a multimodal imaging study. PloS one, 10(11).
- Lucas-Jiménez, O., Ojeda, N., Peña, J., Díez-Cirarda, M., Cabrera-Zubizarreta, A., Gómez-Esteban, J. C., … & Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N. (2016). Altered functional connectivity in the default mode network is associated with cognitive impairment and brain anatomical changes in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism & related disorders, 33, 58-64.
- Lucas‐Jiménez, O., Ojeda, N., Peña, J., Cabrera‐Zubizarreta, A., Díez‐Cirarda, M., Gómez‐Esteban, J. C., … & Ibarretxe‐Bilbao, N. (2018). Apathy and brain alterations in Parkinson’s disease: a multimodal imaging study. Annals of clinical and translational neurology, 5(7), 803-814.
- Lucas-Jiménez, O., Díez-Cirarda, M., Ojeda, N., Peña, J., Cabrera-Zubizarreta, A., & Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N. (2015). Verbal memory in parkinson’s disease: a combined DTI and fMRI study. Journal of Parkinson’s disease, 5(4), 793-804.
4) Project: "Structural and functional brain changes associated with cognitive rehabilitation in neurodegenerative diseases (Multiple Sclerosis)" / Funding source: Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness / Reference: PSI2012-32441
The aim of this project is to study the effectiveness of the Rehacop programme in a sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis in generating cognitive, functional and brain changes at both structural and functional levels. Patients are assessed using a neuropsychological battery and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, in pre-treatment, post-treatment follow-up and receive an intervention through the Rehacop programme three months, after which the changes produced by this intervention were investigated.
As a result of this project, our work was published in an international journal, where we presented the main results in relation to the cognitive changes observed in patients with Multiple Sclerosis after the Rehacop intervention, which show improvements in different cognitive functions compared to the group that do not receive the intervention (Rilo, O., Peña, J., Ojeda, N., Rodríguez-Antigüedad, A., Mendibe-Bilbao, M., Gómez-Gastiasoro, A., … & Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N. (2018). Integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation efficacy in multiple sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40(2), 208-216). In the context of this same project, the thesis entitled "Effects of an integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation on cognition and brain connectivity in multiple sclerosis" (Dr. Oiane Rilo), which presents the cognitive, functional and brain changes after the implementation of the Rehacop programme in these patients, was developed and defended.
5) Project: "Evaluation of the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in first psychotic episodes and schizophrenia with the rehacop programme" / Funding source EITB-Maratoia / Reference: BIO09/EM/023 and Project: "Neuropsychological rehabilitation of patients with first psychotic episodes" / Funding source: Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and Instituto Carlos III / Reference: PIO70245
This study investigates the effectiveness of the Rehacop programme in patients with schizophrenia and first psychotic episodes in generating cognitive, clinical and functional improvements. All patients participate in a neuropsychological, clinical and functional assessment before and after the intervention. The intervention lasts three months, during which the experimental group receives cognitive rehabilitation sessions through the Rehacop programme. The group that receives the intervention with the Rehacop programme presents improvements on an overall cognitive level as well as on a functional level and, to a lesser extent, on a clinical level.
As a result of this project, various scientific publications presenting the cognitive, functional and clinical results (see references) have been generated. In addition, three doctoral theses have been conducted with the findings obtained in this project: "Multidimensional assessment of social cognition in psychosis: a longitudinal study" (Dr. Clara González), "Neuropsychological rehabilitation of first psychotic episodes and schizophrenia with the REHACOP programe” (Dr. Eneritz Bengoetxea), “Insight in First Episode Psychosis: Role of Time and Cognitive Reserve” (Dr. Acebo García).
- Ojeda N., Peña J., Sánchez P., Bengoetxea E (2010). La Rehabilitación Neuropsicológica en Psicosis II: El programa Rehacop. En Ezcurra J, Gutiérrez M y González-Pinto A, Esquizofrenia: Sociogenésis, psicogenésis y condicionamiento biológico. Capt 32, pg 471-495. Ed Aula Médica. ISBN 13:978-84-7885-509-4.
- Bengoetxea,E., Ojeda N., Segarra R., Sánchez P.M., García J., Peña J., García A., Eguíluz J.I y Elizagárate, E. (2011). Evidencias de eficacia de la rehabilitación cognitiva en psicosis y esquizofrenia con el programa REHACOP. En Quevedo-Blasco R y Quevedo Blasco VJ, Situación actual de la psicología clínica. (pp. 192-194). Ed Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. ISBN: 978-84-694-3972-2.
- Ojeda N., Peña J., Bengoetxea E, García A., Sánchez P., Segarra R. C, Ezcurra J., Gutiérrez Fraile M., Eguíluz J.I. C. (2012). REHACOP: Programa de Rehabilitación Cognitiva en Psicosis. Revista de Neurología, 54 (6): 337-342.
- Ojeda N., Peña J., Segarra R., Sanchez P., Bengoetxea E., Eguiluz JI., Gutierrez M. (2012). Efficiency of cognitive rehabilitation in chronic treatment resistant Hispanic patients with schizophrenia with the Rehacop. Neurorehabilitation, vol 30, 65-74.
- Ojeda N., Peña J., Bengoetxea E., García A, Sánchez P, Segarra R, Ezcurra J. Gutiérrez Fraile M, Eguíluz JI. (2012). Evidencias de eficacia de la Rehabilitación Cognitiva en Psicosis y esquizofrenia con el programa Rehacop. Revista de Neurología, 54(10): 577-86.
- Sánchez, P., Peña, J., Bengoetxea, E., Ojeda, N., Elizagárate, E., Ezcurra, J., Gutiérrez, M. (2013). Improvement in negative symptoms and functional outcome after new generation cognitive remediation program (REHACOP): A randomized controlled trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin. May 18. [Epub ahead of print].
- Peña, J., Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., Sánchez, P., Iriarte, M. B., Elizagarate, E., Garay, M. A., … & Ojeda, N. (2016). Combining social cognitive treatment, cognitive remediation, and functional skills training in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial. NPJ schizophrenia, 2, 16037.
- Peña, J., Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N., Sánchez, P., Uriarte, J. J., Elizagarate, E., Gutierrez, M., & Ojeda, N. (2018). Mechanisms of functional improvement through cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. Journal of psychiatric research, 101, 21-27.